lesson_plans

Biotechnology Unit Plan

 

Overview:  This unit is designed for a 9th grade, Living Environment Regents course.  Students are introduced to the concept of biotechnology with examples of biomedical and forensic applications.  Students will perform common molecular laboratory techniques in order to enhance understanding of the structure and function of DNA and protein as well as the basis for genetic traits.  The lesson plans are designed to show students how restriction enzyme analysis in combination with gel electrophoresis can be used to manipulate DNA for various diagnostic purposes (i.e., identifying genetic diseases, pathogens, species or individuals).  A wide range of concepts learned in units entitled The Scientific Method, Biological Processes, Homeostasis and Disease, Genetics and Heredity, Biotechnology and Evolution can serve as topics for the learning activities.

 

 

Biotechnology Unit Structure:

Lesson #

Topic

Daily Essential Questions

Learning Activities

1

Introduction to Biotechnology

How can scientists manipulate DNA in a laboratory?

1. Mini-Lesson: Introduction to Biotechnology presentation and notes

2. Pair Activity: Biotechnology Regents Questions

2

Project Introduction:

What is causing a mystery illness?

How can scientists use DNA to diagnose diseases?

1. Mini-Lesson: Project Overview

2. Pair Activity: Preliminary Diagnosis activity

3

Basic Molecular Lab Skills

How do scientists manipulate material in a lab?

1. Mini-Lesson: Measuring Different Volumes in a Lab

2. Pair Activity: Pipette Practice

4

Restriction Enzymes

How do restriction enzymes function?

1. Mini-Lesson: Restriction Enzymes

2. Pair Activity: Identifying Restriction Sites activity

5

Gel Electrophoresis

How is gel electrophoresis used to separate DNA fragments?

1. Mini-Lesson: Gel Electrophoresis

2. Pair Activity: Gel Electrophoresis Regents Questions

6

Lab Day 1: Restriction Digest of DNA

How can restriction enzyme digestion be utilized to treat DNA samples for analysis?

1. Mini-Lesson: Restriction Enzyme Protocol

2. Group Activity: Prepare Restriction Enzyme Digest

3. Group Activity: Restriction Enzyme Digest Prediction activity

7

Lab Day 2: Prepare Gel for Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

How do you prepare an agarose gel for gel electrophoresis?

1. Mini-Lesson: Making an Agarose Gel Protocol

2. Group Activity: Prepare 50mL of 1% agarose in 1X TBE

3. Group Activity: Sample Calculations

8

Lab Day 3: Run Gel Electrophoresis

How is gel electrophoresis used to separate different size DNA fragments generated from restriction enzyme digestion?

1. Mini-Lesson: Mystery Illness Gel Electrophoresis protocol

2. Group Activity: Gel Electrophoresis of  “Mystery Illness” samples

3. Class-Activity: Review predictions of results

9

Lab Day 4: Analysis of Results

How can we analyze gel electrophoresis data to diagnose a disease?

1. Group Activity: Analyze Results

2. Group Activity: Disease Diagnosis!

3. Mini-Lesson: How can you determine the size of your DNA fragments

4. Group Activity: Determine size of DNA fragments activity

10

Biotechnology Extension Activities – Day 1: Disease Epidemic

 

How can be used biotechnology to diagnose patients during a disease epidemic?

1. Mini-Lesson: Influenza Outbreak

2. Pair Activity: How could you use DNA to diagnose patients with Influenza?

11

Biotechnology Extension Activities – Day 2: Forensics

How can be used biotechnology to solve criminal cases?

1. Mini-Lesson: Biotechnology and Forensics

2. Pair Activity: How can you use DNA to solve crimes?

12

Biotechnology Unit Exam

How do you assess the concepts covered?

 

1. Individual Activity: Biotechnology Unit Exam

 

 

The Living Environment Regents curriculum is organized into ten sequential units.  Students will be required to apply concepts from all of the preceding units to fully understand the material presented in the Biotechnology Unit.  Some of the prerequisite concepts are outlined below:


1.     Unit One – The Scientific Method

a.      The purpose of each component of a controlled experiment

b.     Collection, graphing and analysis of experimental data

c.      Basic lab skills, measurements, simple calculations

2.     Unit Two – Biological Processes (cell structure, body systems, cellular reactions)

a.      Organic monomers and polymers

b.     Proteins are composed of amino acids and their specific structure determine their function

c.      Enzymes are proteins that speed up the rate of reactions, perform synthesis and digestion reactions

d.     Structure and function of cellular organelles

3.     Unit Three – Homeostasis and Disease

a.      Human disease can be caused by different types of pathogens and by genetic or environmental factors

b.     Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases

c.      Treatment of elimination of diseases in an organism restores homeostasis

4.     Unit Four – Reproduction and Development

a.      Sexually reproducing organisms receive genetic information from two parents of the same species

b.     The cellular processes of mitosis and meioses

c.      The basic difference between reproduction in sexual and asexually reproducing organisms

5.     Unit Five – Genetics and Heredity

a.      The structure and function of DNA

b.     The biological processes of replication, transcription, and translation

c.      The relative size and organization of genetic material (nucleotide, genes, chromosomes, genomes)

d.     The relationship between the nucleotide sequence and the amino acid sequence generated during transcription/translation

e.      There is genetic variation between members of the same species, and between organisms from different species.

6.     Unit Six – Biotechnology

7.     Unit Seven – Evolution

DNA data from gel electrophoresis experiments will be used as evidence to determine the evolutionary relationships between organisms from different species

8.     Unit Eight – Ecology

9.     Unit Nine – Human Impact on the Biosphere

10.  Unit Ten – Regents Review




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Lesson #1: Introduction to Biotechnology

 

Daily Essential Question: How can scientists manipulate DNA in a laboratory?

 

Learning Agenda:

Do Now: (5 minutes) How can a DNA mutation cause a disease?

           

Mini-Lesson: (20 minutes) Introduction to Biotechnology presentation and notes

-        Students take guided notes throughout lecture   

-        Key Concepts: genetic engineering, DNA isolation/purification, restriction enzyme use, steps of gene cloning, cell transformation,  cloning can be used to cure genetic diseases

 

Pair Activity: (15 minutes) Biotechnology Regents Questions

-        Students will work in pairs to complete archived regents questions that address concepts learned in the mini-lesson

-        Students are encourage to refer to their Introduction to Biotechnology notes and their partner to help answer questions

 

Class Activity: (5 minutes) Share-out

-        Student pairs will share out responses to the Biotechnology Regents Questions

 

Wrap-up: (5 minutes)

 

Homework:   Free Response:  Explain how enzymes can be used to manipulate DNA. (minimum 5 sentences)

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Assessment(s): 1. Responses to Biotechnology Regents Questions

                          2. Free response homework question ______________________________________________________________________________

 

At the end of this lesson:

            CONTENT (to know):

- the connection between nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence

- the overall process and purpose of restriction enzyme action, gene cloning and cell transformation

 

SKILLS (to do):

- apply knowledge of enzyme function to molecular biotechnology protocols

- demonstrate ability to understand molecular biology protocols by answering and analyzing Regents-level questions

 

 

Unit Objective:

  1. Students will analyze and dissect the structure and function of DNA, RNA and protein, and the cellular processes they are involved in, in order to articulate how these molecules are responsible for heredity.
  2. Students will learn and employ molecular laboratory techniques in order to discover how DNA can be manipulated to solve real-life questions. 
  3. Students will apply knowledge of genetic events to explain how modern biotechnology techniques can be used for forensic and biomedical purposes. 

 



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Lesson #6: Restriction Digest of DNA

 

Daily Essential Question: How can restriction enzyme digestion be utilized to treat DNA samples for analysis?

 

Learning Agenda:

Do Now: (5 minutes) What is the function of restriction enzymes?

 

Mini-Lesson: (10 minutes) “Restriction Enzyme Protocol” presentation and notes

-        Students take guided notes throughout lecture   

-        Key Concepts:

o   Review experimental situation and samples being used in experiment (samples of 5 known species of pathogenic bacteria, unknown from patient)

o    Restriction enzymes are sensitive to changes in temperature and must be kept on ice to prevent denaturation and inactivation

o   Review protocol and what specifically will be added to each tube

 

Group Activity: (15 minutes) Prepare Restriction Digest

-        Students working in groups of four will prepare the restriction digest, each member of the group will take turns pipetting and preparing samples

-        Samples will be incubated at room temperature overnight

 

Group Activity: (15 minutes) Restriction Enzyme Digest Prediction

-        Students working in groups will predict the band pattern of the 5 known samples based on DNA diagrams indicating restriction sites

-        Students will draw the band pattern they predict will be produced for each species of pathogenic bacteria*

 

 

Homework:  *Complete Restriction Enzyme Digest Prediction for homework if you did not finish it in class.

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Assessment(s): 1. Restriction Enzyme Digest Prediction activity

                          2. Restriction Enzyme Digest protocol outline

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

At the end of this lesson:

            CONTENT (to know):

- restriction enzymes are protein molecules that cut DNA at specific nucleotide sequences

- genes from different species will be cut at different sites by the same restriction enzyme because they have different patterns of restriction sites

- restriction enzymes are heat-sensitive

 

SKILLS (to do):

- identify restriction sites

- predict the outcome of a restriction digest of a known nucleotide sequence

- set up a restriction enzyme digest based on a set protocol

 

Unit Objective:

  1. Students will analyze and dissect the structure and function of DNA, RNA and protein, and the cellular processes they are involved in, in order to articulate how these molecules are responsible for heredity.
  2. Students will learn and employ molecular laboratory techniques in order to discover how DNA can be manipulated to solve real-life questions. 
  3. Students will apply knowledge of genetic events to explain how modern biotechnology techniques can be used for forensic and biomedical purposes. 

 



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Lesson #9: Analysis of Results/Diagnosis

 

Daily Essential Question: How can we analyze gel electrophoresis to diagnose a disease?

 

Learning Agenda:

Do Now: (5 minutes) Medically, why did we have to use gel electrophoresis and restriction enzyme digestion to determine which bacterial species existed in the patient?  Why is it important to identify which pathogen is infecting a patient?

 

Group Activity: (5 minutes) Analyze Results

-        Students will observe and record their gel electrophoresis data by sketching the results

 

Group Activity: (5 minutes) Diagnose the Patient!

-        Students will identify which species of bacteria infected the patient and recommend a course of treatment for that disease (each species needs a different drug)

 

Mini-Lesson: (10 minutes) Analyzing Gel Electrophoresis Data presentation and notes

-        Students take guided notes throughout lecture   

-        Key Concepts:

o   How to estimate DNA band size based on the marker used

o   How to graph the marker on a semi-log graph and extrapolate band of unknown size based on the distance traveled

 

Group Activity: (20 minutes) Analyzing Gel Electrophoresis Data

-        Students in groups will graph the distance of the DNA marker (ladder) on semi-log paper and will calculate the size of their unknown bands from their constructed graph*

 

Wrap-up: (5 minutes)

 

 

Homework:  * Complete Analyzing Gel Electrophoresis Data activity

 

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Assessment(s): 1. Patient Diagnosis

                           2. Analyzing Gel Electrophoresis Data activity                              ______________________________________________________________________________

 

At the end of this lesson:

            CONTENT (to know):

- the function of TBE buffer and agarose in gel electrophoresis

- Gel electrophoresis separates DNA based on size and charge

- Each species produces a different pattern of DNA fragments after restriction digestion and gel electrophoresis because they have different patterns of restriction sites

 

SKILLS (to do):

- identify the correct infectious species by comparing the fragment pattern of the 5 known DNA samples with the patient DNA

- calculate the size of the DNA bands produced by gel electrophoresis by measuring and graphing the distance traveled by the bands of the unknown sample to that of the known samples

 

Unit Objective:

  1. Students will analyze and dissect the structure and function of DNA, RNA and protein, and the cellular processes they are involved in, in order to articulate how these molecules are responsible for heredity.
  2. Students will learn and employ molecular laboratory techniques in order to discover how DNA can be manipulated to solve real-life questions. 
  3. Students will apply knowledge of genetic events to explain how modern biotechnology techniques can be used for therapeutic and biomedical purposes. 

 


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dan kleinman,
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dan kleinman,
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dan kleinman,
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dan kleinman,
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dan kleinman,
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ć
dan kleinman,
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dan kleinman,
Aug 13, 2012, 12:36 PM
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dan kleinman,
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dan kleinman,
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dan kleinman,
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